Uurimus
Pòlvkondade eluteed 87
Alguse aeg
XII 1986
Lõpu aeg
I 1988
Staatus
SPSS fail
Uurimisobjekt
Eeskiri
The second-stage survey was carried out between December 1986 and January 1988. Respondents' addresses were obtained from the central address bureau in Tallinn. (Statistics pertaining to the information received from the central address bureau are given in the description of the second-stage sample). The sample was divided between the Tallinn and Tartu research teams on the basis of the addresses obtained. The field work was done by the Tartu group in the counties of Tartu, Pärnu, Viljandi, Valga, V ru, P lva, J geva, Järva, and Western Viru, and by the Tallinn team in Tallinn and the counties of Harju, Eastern Viru, Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, Rapla and Haapsalu. Like the first-stage survey, the second-stage survey was administered by research team members who had received special instruction. Each interviewer conducted from 10 to 250 surveys. Technical personnel assisted in surveys administered by mail (see method 4 below). The Tartu team completed the survey in July 1987 and the Tallinn team in January 1988. Both the Tallinn and Tartu teams used four survey methods: 1. The respondent was visited by the interviewer at home or his/her work place and completed the questionnaire in the presence of the interviewer. (20 % of all cases)) 2. A letter was sent to the respondent asking him/her to visit the office of our research groups or some other place and to complete the questionnaire there. (10 % of all cases) 3. The respondent was personally contacted by the interviewer but completed and returned the questionnaire after the interviewer had left. (This method was used for about 50% of the respondents). 4. The questionnaire was sent and received by post. (This method was used for about 20% of the respondents). This method was mainly used in the countryside. The method used is reported in V281 (completion of the questionnaire), but, unfortunately, this information was not recorded for everyone. In total, 2,261 respondents were surveyed in the second stage. In personal contacts with respondents as well as in letters, the first stage of the survey was mentioned in asking respondents' help with the second stage. There were fewer than 20 refusals in all. In postal survey about 30% of the respondents needed one reminder-letter, and 10% two or more. Sixty percent returned the questionnaire in 6-10 days. Data from both the first and second stages were coded by the members of our research groups.
Realiseerumine
SAMPLE DESCRIPTION The sample of the first follow-up was designed on the basis of the graduating students who were surveyed in 1983. Respondents' addresses were obtained from the central address bureau in Tallinn. Of some 3,400 needed addresses the inquiry at the address bureau indicated that: 150 persons had officially left Estonia (145 of them were graduates of Russian schools) 160 were in the military 6 were in prison 5 were dead 120 persons could not be located in any way (no information in the address bureau, 70 of them were the graduates of Russian schools) 2,900 could be located. The second stage sample was designed on the basis of the 2,900 located respondents who officially lived in Estonia at the time of the second survey. In conditions of limited time and resources the aim of the first follow-up was not to survey all these 2,900 respondents. The main task was to get the same 12, possibly smaller in size, but proportionally representative subsamples, which were used in the base-year study. As a result of this strategy the survey was finished at the end of 1987 when 2,261 respondents were questioned. Approximately 60 incorrectly completed questionnaires were excluded before data entry and the data of 2,201 respondents were entered in the computer EC-1060. Incorrect data of 18 respondents were deleted during the current data checking and thus the checked data file includes data on 2,183 respondents. On the basis of these respondents the following proportionally representative subsamples were chosen: National subsample Subsamples of main Subsamples of subtypes types of secondary of secondary education education 1. National sample 2. Sample of the VSS 5. Sample of RVSS N= 692 P= 4.4% N= 433 P= 13.2% N= 123 P= 15.7% 6. Sample of UVSS N= 319 P= 12.9% 3. Sample of SSS 7. Sample of ASSS N= 386 P= 16.1% N= 203 P= 23.1% 8. Sample of ISSS N= 170 P= 15.8% 9. Sample of HSSS N= 102 P= 23.1% 4. Sample of GSS 10. Sample of GSSO N= 676 P= 6.8% N= 564 P= 6.8% 11. Sample of GSS9 N= 358 P= 26.5% 12. Sample of GSS1 N= 118 P= 39.9% N: number of respondents in the subsample P: percent of surveyed students from the total size of the corresponding (sub)cohort (for example, P = 4.4% for the national sample means, that this subsample includes 4.4 % of all graduating students of all types of secondary schools in 1983; P = 13.2% for sample of VSS means that this subsample includes 13.2 % of all graduating students of VSS in 1983. etc.) VSS- Vocational secondary schools RVSS- Rural vocational secondary schools UVSS- Urban vocational secondary schools SSS- Specialized secondary schools ASSS- Agricultural specialized secondary schools ISSS- Industrial specialized secondary schools HSSS- Humanitarian (non-technical) specialized secondary schools GSS- General secondary schools GSSO- Ordinary general secondary schools GSS9- Special type of gen. secondary school since form 9 GSS1- Special type of gen. secondary school since form 1 Subsamples can be selected by the combinations of V263 (main type of secondary school), V257 (subtype of secondary school), and V282 (code of subsample). V282 is coded as it was done at the first stage of the study: 1 = Respondents in the national sample; 2 = Respondents added to the national sample to form subsamples of the main types of secondary schools; 3 = Respondents added to subsamples of the main types of secondary schools to form subsamples of subtypes of secondary schools; 4 = The remaining respondents who are not members of any representative subsample (the so-called "reserve") If possible, the codes of sample were not changed at the second stage of study but in many cases it was done because many respondents could not be found. Especially it concerned the students of the Russian schools. In these cases the "absent" respondent of the given subsample was randomly replaced by a respondent who had the most similar criteria of representativeness. Most often the "absent" respondent was replaced by his or her classmate. These replacements do not have essential impact on the quality of the subsamples because at the first stage of the study as well as at the second stage the respondents for the different subsamples were chosen randomly within every study group. Differences between codes of sample at the first and the second stage of the study are depicted in Table 1. The data in the fourth row cannot be presented completely because the "Reserve" of the first stage of the study which was coded by code "4" was lost in the computer. It can be restored only by new data entry. Table 1. Differences between the codes of sample at the first and the second stage of study (frequencies). Code of sample at the second stage Code of sample at of study (V282) the first stage of study (V343) 1 2 3 4 Total ---------------------------------------- 1 628 278 47 10 963 2 34 398 62 27 521 3 11 13 239 42 305 4 394 ---------------------------------------- Total 2,183 QUALITY OF SUBSAMPLES IN THE SECOND-STAGE (1987) SURVEY. In comparison with the sample of the first stage of the study there is one systematic error in the sample of the second stage of the study. It excludes the life histories of those young people who had left Estonia or were in military service at the time of the second survey. It also excludes those persons who were living in Estonia but whose whereabouts could not be ascertained. This means that quite a specific part (its share is approximatly 15%) of the educational cohort is not represented in the subsamples of the second stage survey.. In more detail the representativeness of the subsamples can be assessed by examining the deviations of percentages for the subsamples from those for the corresponding subcohort. These deviations are reported in Tables 2-13, which use the following abbreviations: Cohort: percentage distribution of the cohort; Sample: percentage distribution of the subsample; Diff: difference between the corresponding percentages in the sample and the cohort; Nc: the total number of seniors in the given (sub)type of secondary school in 1983; Ns: the number of respondents in the given subsample in the second stage of study; P: percentage of all seniors in the given type of secondary school in 1983 who are in the subsample at the second stage; NF: Not fixed. This concerns only data about the field of polytechnic training for the subcohort of the graduating students of GSSO because of the lack of statistics. Table 2. The overall educational cohort (national sample): differences between the percentage distributions of the cohort and the sample according to the criteria of representativeness.. Nc = 15,636 Ns = 692 P = 4.4% ---------------------------------------------------------------- Cohort Sample Diff ---------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF SETTLEMENT 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 16.7 17.9 + 1.2 2 2,000-5,000 6.8 6.8 0 3 5,000-10,000 5.6 7.2 + 1.6 4 10,000-25,000 11.0 8.4 - 2.6 5 25,000-100,000 17.7 16.9 - 0.8 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 8.7 9.4 + 0.7 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 33.4 33.4 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- REGION 1 Tallinn 33.4 33.4 0 2 Tartu 8.7 9.4 + 0.7 3 North 14.5 13.4 - 1.1 4 North East 14.9 13.0 - 1.9 5 West 10.8 9.1 - 1.7 6 Central 9.6 11.3 + 1.7 7 South East 8.1 10.4 + 2.3 ---------------------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION 6 Estonian 65.8 67.3 + 1.5 2 Russian 34.2 32.7 - 1.5 ---------------------------------------------------------------- FIELD OF STUDY 01 machine- and instrument building 4.2 3.3 - 0.9 02 power engineering, radio electronics 3.4 1.8 - 1.6 03 construction 4.0 5.5 + 1.5 04 transportation 4.1 5.5 + 1.4 05 production of consumer goods 4.1 4.3 + 0.2 06 food industry 1.7 1.8 + 0.1 07 finances, planning 0.1 0.4 + 0.3 08 trade 1.1 1.3 + 0.2 09 medicine 1.1 1.2 + 0.1 10 education, culture 0.9 0.9 0 11 music, applied art in SSS 0.8 0.9 + 0.1 14 art, music in GSS 0.8 0.9 + 0.1 15 natural sciences 3.5 4.3 + 0.8 16 the humanities 6.2 9.0 + 2.8 17 drivers N.F. 9.4 18 plant growing and animal husbandry N.F. 7.7 19 mechanization of agriculture N.F. 1.2 20 industrial specialties N.F. 7.0 21 trade, service industries, catering N.F. 19.6 22 other N.F. 2.8 Total not fixed 47.7 23 tractor drivers 4.0 4.2 + 0.2 24 mechanization of land improvement 0.6 0.7 + 0.1 25 fitters 0.1 0 - 0.1 26 electrification of agriculture 0.2 0.1 - 0.1 27 vegetable growing 0.2 0.1 - 0.1 28 agricultural book-keeping 0.3 0.3 0 29 agronomy 1.2 1.2 0 30 horticulture, apiculture 0.6 0.6 0 31 animal husbandry 0.8 0.9 + 0.1 32 veterinary science 0.2 0.3 + 0.1 33 mechanization of agriculture 1.2 1.3 + 0.1 34 electrification of agriculture 0.1 0.3 + 0.2 35 mechanization of land improvement 0.3 0.3 0 36 mechanization of farms 0.6 0.3 - 0.3 37 silviculture 0.3 0.3 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- SUBTYPES OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS 1 RVSS 5.0 5.1 + 0.1 2 UVSS 15.8 15.9 + 0.1 3 ASSS 5.6 5.6 0 4 ISSS 6.9 7.4 + 0.5 5 HSSS 2.8 2.9 + 0.1 6 GSS0 53.3 51.4 - 1.9 7 GSS9 8.6 9.7 + 1.3 8 GSS1 1.9 2.0 + 0.1 ---------------------------------------------------------------- MEAN OF THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF DEVIATIONS 0.6 Table 3. VSS (Vocational secondary schools): differences between the percentage distributions of the cohort and the sample according to the criteria of representativeness. Nc = 3,261 Ns = 433 P = 13.2% ---------------------------------------------------------------- Cohort Sample Diff ---------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF SETTLEMENT 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 19.3 22.2 + 2.9 2 2,000-5,000 1.3 2.3 + 1.0 3 5,000-10,000 3.5 4.8 + 1.3 4 10,000-25,000 1.8 0.7 - 1.1 5 25,000-100,000 28.6 17.8 -10.8 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 9.2 17.3 + 8.1 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 36.2 34.9 - 1.3 ---------------------------------------------------------------- REGION 1 Tallinn 36.2 34.9 - 1.3 2 Tartu 9.2 17.3 + 8.1 3 North 13.9 13.6 - 0.3 4 North East 24.5 13.2 -11.3 5 West 7.2 7.6 + 0.4 6 Central 4.9 7.4 + 2.5 7 South East 4.1 6.0 + 1.9 ---------------------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION 6 Estonian 57.3 68.4 +11.1 2 Russian 42.7 31.6 -11.1 ---------------------------------------------------------------- FIELD OF STUDY 01 machine- and instrument building 14.4 13.6 - 0.8 02 power engineering, radio electronics 10.9 5.1 - 5.8 03 construction 15.1 14.1 - 1.0 04 transportation 9.8 4.8 - 5.0 05 production of consumer goods 15.3 18.2 + 2.9 06 food industry 5.1 7.2 + 2.1 08 trade 5.3 10.9 + 5.6 23 tractor drivers 19.0 20.8 + 1.8 24 mechanization of land improvement 3.0 3.2 + 0.2 25 fitters 0.4 0 - 0.4 26 electrification of agriculture 0.7 0.9 + 0.2 27 vegetable growing 1.0 1.2 + 0.2 ---------------------------------------------------------------- SUBTYPES OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS RVSS 24.0 26.1 + 2.1 UVSS 76.0 73.9 - 2.1 ---------------------------------------------------------------- MEAN OF THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF DEVIATIONS 3.5 Table 4. SSS (Specialized secondary schools): differences between the percentage distributions of the cohort and the sample according to the criteria of representativeness. Nc = 2,397 Ns = 386 P = 16.1% ---------------------------------------------------------------- Cohort Sample Diff ---------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF SETTLEMENT 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 34.1 33.4 - 0.7 2 2,000-5,000 2.5 2.6 + 0.1 3 5,000-10,000 2.1 4.1 + 2.0 4 10,000-25,000 8.1 11.1 + 3.0 5 25,000-100,000 9.1 9.6 + 0.5 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 5.9 6.0 + 0.1 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 38.0 33.2 - 4.8 ---------------------------------------------------------------- REGION 1 Tallinn 38.0 33.2 - 4.8 2 Tartu 5.9 6.0 + 0.1 3 North 12.8 15.8 + 3.0 4 North East 11.3 9.6 - 1.7 5 West 7.6 8.0 + 0.4 6 Central 13.7 13.0 - 0.7 7 South East 10.7 14.5 + 3.8 ---------------------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION 6 Estonian 75.8 78.8 + 3.0 2 Russian 24.2 21.2 - 3.0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- FIELD OF STUDY 01 machine- and instrument building 7.6 6.5 - 1.1 02 power engineering, radio electronics 7.3 8.8 + 1.5 03 construction 5.5 1.0 - 4.5 04 transportation 13.5 16.6 + 3.1 05 production of consumer goods 5.8 6.2 + 0.4 06 food industry 4.2 3.1 - 1.1 07 finances, planning 9.6 1.6 - 8.0 09 medicine 7.3 7.0 - 0.3 10 education, culture 5.9 6.2 + 0.3 11 music, applied art 5.2 6.0 + 0.8 28 agricultural book-keeping 2.0 2.1 + 0.1 29 agronomy 7.6 7.8 + 0.2 30 horticulture, apiculture 3.8 3.9 + 0.1 31 animal husbandry 5.5 5.4 - 0.1 32 veterinary science 1.5 1.6 + 0.1 33 mechanization of agriculture 8.1 8.0 - 0.1 34 electrification of agriculture 0.7 2.3 + 1.6 35 mechanization of land improvement 1.9 1.8 - 0.1 36 mechanization of farms 3.8 2.3 - 1.5 37 silviculture 1.9 1.8 + 0.1 ---------------------------------------------------------------- SUBTYPES OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS ASSS 36.7 37.0 + 0.3 ISSS 45.0 43.8 - 1.2 HSSS 18.4 19.2 + 0.8 ---------------------------------------------------------------- MEAN OF THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF DEVIATIONS 1.5 Table 5. GSS (General secondary schools). Nc = 9,978 Ns = 676 P = 6.8% ---------------------------------------------------------------- Cohort Sample Diff ---------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF SETTLEMENT 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 11.7 13.8 + 2.1 2 2,000-5,000 9.6 12.1 + 2.5 3 5,000-10,000 7.0 6.8 - 0.2 4 10,000-25,000 14.8 13.2 - 1.6 5 25,000-100,000 16.3 12.1 - 4.2 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 9.3 12.6 + 3.3 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 31.4 29.4 - 2.0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- REGION 1 Tallinn 31.4 29.4 - 2.0 2 Tartu 9.3 12.6 + 3.3 3 North 15.1 10.8 - 4.3 4 North East 12.6 8.4 - 4.2 5 West 12.7 12.4 - 0.3 6 Central 10.2 12.3 + 2.1 7 South East 8.9 14.1 + 5.2 ---------------------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION 6 Estonian 66.2 75.1 + 8.9 2 Russian 33.8 24.9 + 8.9 ---------------------------------------------------------------- FIELD OF STUDY 14 art, music 1.2 1.3 + 0.1 15 natural sciences 5.5 5.9 + 0.4 16 the humanities 9.8 13.4 + 3.6 17 drivers N.F. 15.3 18 plant growing and animal husbandry N.F. 12.4 19 mechanization of agriculture N.F. 4.3 20 industrial specialties N.F. 10.3 21 trade, service industries, catering N.F. 32.4 22 other N.F. 4.8 Total not fixed 79.5 ---------------------------------------------------------------- SUBTYPES OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS GSS0 83.5 83.3 - 0.2 GSS9 13.5 13.3 - 0.2 GSS1 3.0 3.4 + 0.4 ---------------------------------------------------------------- MEAN OF THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF DEVIATIONS 2.7 Table 6. RVSS (Rural vocational secondary schools): differences between the percentage distributions of the cohort and the sample according to the criteria of representativeness. Nc = 783 Ns = 123 P = 15.7% ---------------------------------------------------------------- Cohort Sample Diff ---------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF SETTLEMENT 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 77.9 79.7 + 1.8 2 2,000-5,000 0 0 0 3 5,000-10,000 14.6 17.9 + 3.3 4 10,000-25,000 7.5 2.4 - 5.1 5 25,000-100,000 0 0 0 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 0 0 0 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 0 0 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- REGION 1 Tallinn 0 0 0 2 Tartu 0 0 0 3 North 57.9 54.5 - 3.4 4 North East 0 0 0 5 West 7.5 2.4 - 5.1 6 Central 17.6 21.1 + 3.5 7 South East 17.0 22.0 + 5.0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION 6 Estonian 96.9 100.0 + 3.1 2 Russian 3.1 0 - 3.1 ---------------------------------------------------------------- FIELD OF STUDY 23 tractor drivers 78.9 79.7 + 0.8 24 mechanization of land improvement 12.4 12.2 - 0.2 25 fitters 1.7 0 - 1.7 26 electrification of agriculture 3.1 3.3 + 0.2 27 vegetable growing 4.0 4.9 + 0.9 ---------------------------------------------------------------- MEAN OF THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF DEVIATIONS 1.8 Table 7. UVSS (Urban vocational secondary schools): differences between the percentage distributions of the cohort and the sample according to the criteria of representativeness. Nc = 2,478 Ns = 319 P = 12.9% ---------------------------------------------------------------- Cohort Sample Diff ---------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF SETTLEMENT 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 0.8 2.2 + 1.4 2 2,000-5,000 1.7 3.1 + 1.4 3 5,000-10,000 0 0 0 4 10,000-25,000 0 0 0 5 25,000-100,000 37.6 23.8 -13.8 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 12.1 23.5 +11.4 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 47.7 47.3 - 0.4 ---------------------------------------------------------------- REGION 1 Tallinn 47.7 47.3 - 0.4 2 Tartu 12.1 23.5 +11,4 3 North 0 0 0 4 North East 32.2 17.6 -14.6 5 West 7.1 9.4 + 2.3 6 Central 0.8 2.2 + 1.4 7 South East 0 0 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION 6 Estonian 44.7 42.6 - 2.1 2 Russian 55.3 57.4 + 2.1 ---------------------------------------------------------------- FIELD OF STUDY 01 machine- and instrument building 19.0 18.5 - 0.5 02 power engineering, radio electronics 14.4 6.9 - 7.5 03 construction 19.8 18.8 - 1.0 04 transportation 12.9 6.6 - 6.3 05 production of consumer goods 20.2 24.5 + 4.3 06 food industry 6.7 9.7 + 3.0 07 finances, planning 0 0 0 08 trade 7.0 15.0 + 8.0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- MEAN OF THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF DEVIATIONS 3.9 Table 8. ASSS (Agricultural specialized secondary schools): differences between the percentage distributions of the cohort and the sample according to the criteria of representativeness.. Nc = 879 Ns = 203 P = 23.1% ---------------------------------------------------------------- Cohort Sample Diff ---------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF SETTLEMENT 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 87.3 77.3 -10.0 2 2,000-5,000 6.9 8.9 + 2.0 3 5,000-10,000 5.8 13.8 + 8.0 4 10,000-25,000 0 0 0 5 25,000-100,000 0 0 0 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 0 0 0 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 0 0 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- REGION 1 Tallinn 0 0 0 2 Tartu 0 0 0 3 North 28.4 32.0 + 3.6 4 North East 0 0 0 5 West 20.7 20.2 - 0.5 6 Central 30.0 25.6 - 4.4 7 South East 20.8 22.2 + 1.4 ---------------------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION 6 Estonian 100.0 100.0 0 2 Russian 0 0 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- FIELD OF STUDY 28 agricultural book-keeping 5.3 5.9 + 0.6 29 agronomy 20.6 16.7 - 3.9 30 horticulture, apiculture 10.5 10.8 + 0.3 31 animal husbandry 15.0 18.7 + 3.7 32 veterinary science 4.0 3.9 - 0.1 33 mechanization of agriculture 22.1 20.7 - 1.4 34 electrification of agriculture 1.8 6.4 + 4.6 35 mechanization of land improvement 5.1 5.9 + 0.8 36 mechanization of farms 10.5 5.9 - 4.6 37 silviculture 5.1 4.9 - 0.2 ---------------------------------------------------------------- MEAN OF THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF DEVIATIONS 1.9 Table 9. ISSS (Industrial specialized secondary schools): differences between the percentage distributions of the cohort and the sample according to the criteria of representativeness. Nc = 1,078 Ns = 170 P = 15.8% ---------------------------------------------------------------- Cohort Sample Diff ---------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF SETTLEMENT 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 4.7 7.1 + 2.4 2 2,000-5,000 0 0 0 3 5,000-10,000 0 0 0 4 10,000-25,000 11.5 14.1 + 2.6 5 25,000-100,000 15.7 17.1 + 1.4 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 0 0 0 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 68.1 61.8 - 6.3 ---------------------------------------------------------------- REGION 1 Tallinn 68.1 61.8 - 6.3 2 Tartu 0 0 0 3 North 0 0 0 4 North East 20.4 17.1 - 3.3 5 West 0 0 0 6 Central 4.7 7.1 + 2.4 7 South East 6.8 14.1 + 7.3 ---------------------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION 6 Estonian 56.5 62.4 + 5.9 2 Russian 43.5 37.6 - 5.9 ---------------------------------------------------------------- FIELD OF STUDY 01 machine- and instrument building 17.0 14.7 - 2.3 02 power engineering, radio electronics 16.2 20.6 + 4.4 03 construction 12.3 2.4 - 9.9 04 transportation 30.1 37.6 + 7.5 05 production of consumer goods 12.9 14.1 + 1.2 06 food industry 9.3 7.1 - 2.2 07 finances, planning 2.1 3.5 + 1.4 08 trade 0 0 0 --------------------------------------------------------------- MEAN OF THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF DEVIATIONS 3.0 Table 10. HSSS (Humanities-specialized secondary schools): differences between the percentage distributions of the cohort and the sample according to the criteria of representativeness. Nc = 440 Ns = 102 P = 23.1% ---------------------------------------------------------------- Cohort Sample Diff ---------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF SETTLEMENT 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 0 0 0 2 2,000-5,000 0 0 0 3 5,000-10,000 0 0 0 4 10,000-25,000 16.1 30.4 +14.3 5 25,000-100,000 11.4 8.8 - 2.6 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 32.3 32.4 + 0.1 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 40.2 28.4 -11.8 ---------------------------------------------------------------- REGION 1 Tallinn 40.2 28.4 -11.8 2 Tartu 32.3 32.4 + 0.1 3 North 13.0 30.4 +17.4 4 North East 13.3 8.8 - 4.5 5 West 0 0 0 6 Central 3.2 0 - 3.2 7 South East 0 0 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION 6 Estonian 75.0 76.5 + 1.5 2 Russian 25.0 23.5 - 1.5 ---------------------------------------------------------------- FIELD OF STUDY 09 medicine 39.5 32.4 - 7.1 10 education, culture 32.3 35.3 + 3.0 11 music, applied art 28.2 32.4 + 4.2 ---------------------------------------------------------------- MEAN OF THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF DEVIATIONS 4.4 Table 11. GSS0 (Ordinary forms of general secondary schools): differences between the percentage distributions of the cohort and the sample according to the criteria of representativeness. Nc = 8,331 Ns = 564 P = 6.8% ---------------------------------------------------------------- Cohort Sample Diff ---------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF SETTLEMENT 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 13.1 16.0 + 2.1 2 2,000-5,000 10.7 14.2 + 3.7 3 5,000-10,000 8.7 6.9 - 2.2 4 10,000-25,000 14.6 12.4 - 2.2 5 25,000-100,000 17.0 11.9 - 5.1 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 7.2 10.6 + 3.4 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 29.3 28.0 - 1.3 ---------------------------------------------------------------- REGION 1 Tallinn 29.3 28.0 - 1.3 2 Tartu 7.2 10.6 + 3.4 3 North 17.2 10.8 - 6.4 4 North East 14.7 9.0 - 5.7 5 West 12.6 13.8 + 1.2 6 Central 10.8 12.6 + 1.8 7 South East 8.2 15.1 + 6.9 ---------------------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION 6 Estonian 62.1 72.3 +10.2 2 Russian 37.9 27.7 -10.2 ---------------------------------------------------------------- FIELD OF STUDY 16 the humanities N.F. 3.1 17 drivers N.F. 18.8 18 plant growing and animal husbandry N.F. 15.1 19 mechanization of agriculture N.F. 5.2 20 industrial specialties N.F. 12.6 21 trade, service industries, catering N.F. 39.5 22 other N.F. 5.8 ---------------------------------------------------------------- MEAN OF THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF DEVIATIONS 4.2 Table 12. GSS9 (Special form of general sec. sch. since form 9): differences between the percentage distributions of the cohort and the sample according to the criteria of representativeness. Nc = 1,351 Ns = 358 P = 26.5% ---------------------------------------------------------------- Cohort Sample Diff ---------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF SETTLEMENT 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 5.6 3.4 - 2.2 2 2,000-5,000 5.2 6.4 + 1.2 3 5,000-10,000 1.9 4.2 + 2.3 4 10,000-25,000 19.2 24.3 + 5.1 5 25,000-100,000 11.0 10.9 - 0.1 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 21.0 27.4 + 6.4 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 36.1 23.5 -12.6 ---------------------------------------------------------------- REGION 1 Tallinn 36.1 23.5 -12.6 2 Tartu 21.0 27.4 + 6.4 3 North 5.0 12.8 + 7.8 4 North East 2.2 5.3 + 3.1 5 West 11.7 4.2 - 7.5 6 Central 8.9 9.8 + 0.9 7 South East 15.0 17.0 + 2.0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION 6 Estonian 89.2 94.1 + 4.9 2 Russian 10.8 5.9 - 4.8 ---------------------------------------------------------------- FIELD OF STUDY 14 art, music 5.4 6.1 + 0.7 15 natural sciences 40.4 41.1 + 0.7 16 the humanities 54.2 52.8 - 1.4 ---------------------------------------------------------------- MEAN OF THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF DEVIATIONS 4.4 Table 13. GSS1 (Special form of general sec. sch. since form 1): differences between the percentage distributions of the cohort and the sample according to the criteria of representativeness. Nc = 296 Ns = 118 P = 39.9% ---------------------------------------------------------------- Cohort Sample Diff ---------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF SETTLEMENT 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 0 0 0 2 2,000-5,000 0 0 0 3 5,000-10,000 0 0 0 4 10,000-25,000 0 0 0 5 25,000-100,000 20.6 20.3 - 0.3 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 13.2 23.7 +10.5 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 66.2 55.9 -10.3 ---------------------------------------------------------------- REGION 1 Tallinn 66.2 55.9 -10.3 2 Tartu 13.2 23.7 +10.5 3 North 0 0 0 4 North East 0 0 0 5 West 20.6 20.3 - 0.3 6 Central 0 0 0 7 South East 0 0 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION 6 Estonian 78.7 83.1 + 4.4 2 Russian 21.3 16.9 - 4.4 ---------------------------------------------------------------- FIELD OF STUDY 14 art, music 17.2 11.0 - 6.2 15 natural sciences 0 0 0 16 the humanities 82.8 89.0 + 6.2 ---------------------------------------------------------------- MEAN OF THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF DEVIATIONS 3.3
Küsitlusmeetod
Questionnaire The first-stage questionnaire was originally written in the Russian language jointly by the researchers from all regions where the survey was to be conducted. This version was the standard for all other versions. The translation into the Estonian language was done by the research team in Estonia. The questionnaires in Russian and Estonian are identical. Both versions of the questionnaire were printed by the Printing and Publishing Department of Tartu University.
Kodeerimisjuhend
II STAGE 1. Questionnaire's No 2. Location of the school where you entered 1st grade 1 in the countryside 2 in a small city or town 3 in a city with 10,000 to 100,000 inhabitants 4 in a city with more than 100,000 inhabitants 5 in a capital city (including St. Petersburg) 6 elsewhere outside Estonia 3. Location of the school where you completed 8th grade 1 in the countryside 2 in a small city or town 3 in a city with 10,000 to 100,000 inhabitants 4 in a city with more than 100,000 inhabitants 5 in a capital city (including St. Petersburg) 6 elsewhere outside Estonia 4. Did you change your place of residence before completing 8-year fundamental education? 1 yes 2 no 5. Did you have to change your place of residence when you entered secondary school? 1 yes 2 no 6. Location of the school where you completed your secondary education 1 in the countryside 2 in a small city or town 3 in a city with 10,000 to 100,000 inhabitants 4 in a city with more than 100,000 inhabitants 5 in a capital city (including St. Petersburg) 6 elsewhere outside Estonia 7. What was your leaving certificate grade-point average upon graduating from secondary school? 1 no more than 3.50 2 3.51 - 4.00 3 4.01 - 4.50 4 4.51 - 4.99 5 5.00 8. First permanent place of residence after completion of your secondary education 1 in the countryside 2 in a small city or town 3 in a city with 10,000 to 100,000 inhabitants 4 in a city with more than 100,000 inhabitants 5 in a capital city (including St. Petersburg) 6 elsewhere outside Estonia 9. If you changed your place of residence after completing secondary school, what was the reason? 1 I did not change my place of residence 2 I went to work or was assigned to a job 3 Continuing my studies 4 Family or personal circumstances 5 Desire to live in a city (or bigger city) 6 Other 10. First regular place of residence after completion of secondary education 1 Outside Estonia 2 Other city (town, village) in Estonia 3 The same city (town, village) where I obtained my secondary education 11. In how many places have you resided since graduation from secondary school? 12. Your current place of residence 1 in the countryside 2 in a small city or town 3 in a city with 10,000 to 100,000 inhabitants 4 in a city with more than 100,000 inhabitants 5 in a capital city (including St. Petersburg) 6 elsewhere outside Estonia 13. For how many years have you lived there? 1 one year or less ... years Now a few questions about your life after you completed your secondary education 14. During the six months after graduating from secondary school, you... 1 other 2 found a job yourself 3 held a job assigned to you 5 worked and studied as a part-time student in a specialized secondary school 6 continued your education as a full-time student in a specialized or vocat- ional secondary school 7 failed to enter a university and went to work 8 worked and studied as a part-time student 9 continued your studies as a full-time university or college student 15. How long were you (or have you been) employed in your first job, or how long did you study (or have you been studying) in the field you chose after completing your secondary education? 1 less than 6 months 2 6 - 12 months 3 1 - 1.5 years 4 1.5 - 2 years 5 2 - 2.5 years 6 2.5 - 3 years 7 more than 3 years 16. How many attempts have you made to enter an institution of higher education (regardless of the success of these attempts)? 17. Was your first job or field of study related to the practical or theoretical training you received in secondary school? 1 no 2 yes, indirectly related 3 yes, directly related 18. Do you currently study at an institution of higher or specialized secondary education? 1 yes 2 no 19. Field of studies, major Geology 1 geology Mining specialities 2 mining technology Power engineering 3 electrical systems 4 industrial thermal engineering Machine- and equipment-building 5 technology of machine-building, machine-tools and instruments 6 precision instruments and equipment Electrical machinery and equipment, automation 7 electrical machines 8 automation and telemechanics 9 computers 10 industrial electronics 11 automation of industrial equipment 12 automatized control systems 13 applied mathematics Radio electronics and communications 14 radio technology Chemical technology 15 basic processes in chemical industry and chemical cybernetics Wood-processing and paper industry technology 16 wood-processing technology Technology of foodstuffs industry 17 canning technology 18 meat industry technology 19 catering organization and technology Technology of consumer goods 20 natural and chemical fiber spinning 21 clothing technology 22 leather products technology 23 fabric weaving Construction 24 architecture 25 industrial and civil construction 26 production of building constructions and details 27 heating; ventilation 28 water supply, sewer system 29 roads and highways Agriculture and forestry 30 agronomy 31 live-stock breeding 32 veterinary science 33 land use apportionment 34 mechanization of agriculture 35 electrification of agriculture 36 land improvement 37 forestry Transportation 38 automobiles and truck depots Economy 39 industrial planning 40 economics and management of mechanical engineering 41 economics and management of agriculture 42 economics and management of construction industry 43 trade economics 44 consumer goods economics 45 food-stuffs economics 46 finance and credit 47 book-keeping 48 mechanized economic information and data processing 49 agricultural book-keeping 50 economics and management of service industries 51 management and standardization of work Law 52 law Public health and physical fitness 53 theraphy 54 pediatrics 55 stomatology 56 pharmacy 57 physical education and sports University specialities 58 Russian language and literature 59 Russian language in national school (instruction in language of republic) 60 Estonian language and literature 61 English language and literature 62 German language and literature 63 French language and literature 64 history 65 psychology 66 mathematics 67 physics 68 chemistry 69 biology 70 journalism 71 geography 72 economic cybernetics Specialities at pedagogical and cultural colleges 73 Russian language and literature in national school (instruction in language of republic) 74 Estonian language and literature 75 English 76 German 77 mathematics 78 drawing and fine arts 79 pre-school education and psychology 80 special education 81 cultural affairs 82 library science 83 manual training, technical subjects 84 methods of education and elementary training Art 85 music 86 choir-conducting 87 costume and stage design 88 fine arts Other college specialities 89-100 Specialized secondary school fields Mining 101 mineral mining 102 mineral strip-mining Power engineering 103 industrial electrical equipment 104 electrical engineering of mines 105 boilers and turbines Machine- and equipment-building 106 metal cutting 107 industrial equipment assembly and repair 108 apparel industry equipment 109 wood-processing industry machines and equipment Electrical machinery and equipment 110 computers 111 control and automation systems assembly and installation Radio electronics and communications 112 radio communications 113 naval radio communications 114 rural electrical and radio communications 115 automated electrical communications Chemical technology 116 coak-chemical industry technology 117 anorganic substances and fertilizer technology Technology of wood-processing and paper industry 118 furniture manufacture Technology of food industry 119 bakery goods technology 120 fermentation technology 121 canning technology 122 meat processing technology 123 dairy production technology 124 fish processing technology 125 meal preparation technology Technology of consumer goods 126 wool spinning technology 127 apparel manufacturing technology 128 spinning industry technology 129 fabrics weaving technology 130 leather processing technology Construction industry 131 industrial and civil construction 132 construction and maintenance of roads and highways 133 rural and civil construction Geodesy and cartography 134 engineering geodesy Agriculture 135 agronomy 136 horticulture 137 veterinary science 138 live-stock breeding 139 mechanization of agriculture 140 electrification of agriculture 141 forestry 142 mechanization of land improvement 143 apiculture 144 mechanization and electrification of farms 145 heating of farms Transportation 146 railroad maintenace 147 navigation 148 automobile maintenance 149 operation of ship power equipment 150 refrigeration equipments 151 operation of ship automation equipment Economy 152 light industry enterprise planning 153 communications firm planning 154 consumer goods allocation and commerce 155 food-stuffs allocation and commerce 156 printing and publishing sector 157 commerce and marketing sector 158 state budget 159 book-keeping 160 commercial accounting 161 banking 162 mechanization of accounting 163 programming 164 budgetary book-keeping 165 hotel sector 166 agricultural book-keeping 167 business management Jurisprudence 168 law 169 jurisprudence in social insurance firms Public health and physical fitness 170 doctor's assistant 171 midwife 172 laboratory assistant 173 sanitary doctor's assistant 174 pharmacist 175 dental mechanic 176 medical nurse Education 177 elementary school teaching 178 pre-school education 179 cultural affairs club work 180 librarian school 181 music instruction 182 day-care teacher education The arts 183 music 184 conducting 185 ballet 186 wood and stone sculpting 187 footwear and leather design 188 clothes design 189 sculpting 190 other fields of specialized secondary schools 191 vocational school specialities 20. Which secondary school specialty do you attend? ..... 25. More than 3 years have passed since you completed your secondary education. Since then, for how long have you been a student? 1 less than 6 months 2 6 - 12 months 3 1 - 1.5 years 4 1.5 - 2 years 5 2 - 2.5 years 6 2.5 - 3 years 7 more than 3 years Work values Work should enable one to.... 26. ...steady self-improvement 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 27. ...earn a lot of money 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 28. ...win the respect of friends 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 29. ...live peacefully and securely 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 30. ...obtain a high social position 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 31. ...associate with people 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 32. ...be useful to society 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 33. ...advance occupationally 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 34. ...do clean and physically easy work 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 35. ...steadily improve one's knowledge and professional skills 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 36. ...deal with interesting things 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 37. ...see the results of one's work 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 38. ...have certain freedom in how to use one's working time 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 39. ...be useful to people 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 40. ...create new things 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 41. ...use one's abilities 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 failry important 4 very important 42. Do you currently work in the same field for which you received training in secondary school? (W) 1 I did not receive any special training 2 I work in the exact same field for which I was trained 3 I work in a field closely related to the one for which I was trained 4 I work in a field not related to the one for which I was trained 43. How is your work organized? (W) 1 Without shifts 2 In shifts 3 Work days and days off alternate according to a shedule 4 My work day does not have a fixed schedule 44. Your current field of employment 0 home-maker 1 heavy industry 2 light industry 3 food industry 4 construction 5 transportation 6 state farms 7 agricultural collective farms 8 collective fisheries 9 forestry, nature protection 10 rural and farm construction 11 other agriculture-specific fields 12 commerce and catering 13 marketing, processing 14 communal utilities, grounds maintenance 15 service industries 16 public health 17 pre-school education 18 education 19 cultural affairs 20 science, research 21 finance, state insurance 22 sports and physical education 23 state institutions, social organizations 24 social maintenance 25 communications 26 police, emergency services, court 27 power utilities engineering 28 the army 29 tourism 30 cooperatives, self-employed 31 weather forecasting service 45. In which industry did you work after the attainment of a secondary education? 1 Heavy industry 2 Light industry 3 Construction industry 4 Transportation 5 Communication 6 Agriculture, forestry 7 Commerce, catering 8 Services, communal grounds, utilities maintenance 9 Education 10 Public health, physical fitness, social insurance 11 Science 12 Cultural affairs 13 Government and state institutions, social organizations 14 Police, army 15 Other 46. Where are you currently employed? (W) 1 Heavy industry 2 Light industry 3 Construction industry 4 Transportation 5 Communication 6 Agriculture, forestry 7 Commerce, catering 8 Services, communal grounds, utilities maintenance 9 Education 10 Public health, physical fitness, social insurance 11 Science 12 Cultural affairs 13 Government and state institutions, social organizations 14 Police, army 15 Other 47. Your job Code Rank 1 top-level administrator 13 2 chief engineer 13 3 chief mechanical engineer 13 4 chief power engineer 13 5 other chief specialist 13 6-7 head of a department or division 13 8 engineer 7-11 9 mechanical engineer 9-11 10 depot or shop manager 9-10-11 11 technician 9 12 foreman 9 13-14 work-team or subunit manager 9 15 land improver 9 Field 1: metal industry, machine-building 16 locksmith 3-4-5 17 turner 4 18 welder 4 19 fitter 20 other metal-industry specific job 4 21 22 Field 2: road transport 23 driver 5 24 bus driver 5 25 tram or trolley driver 5 26 tractor driver 5 27 drivers of other vehicles 28 R conductor 29 R fire-fighter Field 3: maritime transport and fishing 30 fisher 3 31 R sailor 32 R captain Field 4-5: juridical specialities 33 R lawyer 34 R bailiff Field 6: communications 35 postmaster 8 36 postman 2 37 R operator 38 telephone operator Field 7: electrification 39 electrician 5 40 R fitter, radio-operator Field 8: various manufacturing 41 weaver, spinner 5 42 seamstress 5 43 other light-industry-specific jobs 1-3 44 R food-industry jobs 45 R printing industry jobs Field 9: mining 46 miners and other mining-specific 3 47 R Field 10: other manufacturing and technics-specific 48 R lumber, wood, furniture, and paper- industry 49 R chemical industry specialities Field 11: construction industry Professionals 50 civil engineer 11 51 foreman 9-11 Workers 52 carpenter, joiner 5 53 mason 5 54 house-painter, plasterer 5 55 construction worker 3(7) 56 R 57 R Field 12: plant farming and animal husbandry Professionals 58 state and collective farm manager 13 59 chief live-stock expert 13 60 chief agronomist 13 61 chief veterinarian 13 62 agronomist 9 or 11 63 live-stock expert 9 or 11 64 veterinarian 11 65 assistant veterinarian 9 66-67 work-unit manager 9 Workers 68 milkman 3 69-75 farm hand, cattle worker 1 76 garden worker 1 77 R stable worker 78 R Field 13: land-improvement 79 land improver 1 80 R Field 14: forestry 81 forest guard 2 82 lumberjack 1 83 R forester Field 15: service industries 84 hairdresser 5 85 tailor 5 86 receiver of orders 2-5-7 87 other service-specific (weaver, etc.) 2-5-7 88 photographer, radio and TV-mechanic 89 ticket seller Field 16: commerce and catering 90 shop manager 9-10 91 salesperson, shop-assistant 5 92 cook, confectioner 5 93 waiter, bartender 5 94 dish-washer 1 95 chambermaid, porter, doorkeeper Field 17: education 97 teacher 8-9-11-12 98 day-care center or kindergarten director 10 99 day-care center teacher 8-9 100 nurse-maid 1 101 pioneer youth group leader 102 proof-reader Field 18: science 103 researcher, professor, lecturer 11(13) 104 laboratory assistant Field 19: cultural affairs 105 creative manager 106 librarian, bibliographer Field 20: public health 107 physician 11 108 hospital nurse 9 109 doctor's assistant, midwife 9 110 hospital attendant, disinfector 1 111 registering clerk 112 pharmacist Field 21: planning and accounting 113 chief book-keeper or economist 13 114 book-keeper, economist 7-11 115 administrator, manager in the field of economics 9 116 personnel manager 8-10 117 accounter, operator 7 118 dispatcher 7 119 secretary 7 120 typist 7 121 cashier 7 122 inspector, instructor 7 Field 22: storing economy, goods processing 123 commodities expert 7-11 124 store manager 9 125 outfitter 8 126 controller 7 127 dispatcher 7 128 store-keeper 2 129 loader 1 130 packer, sorter 131 miller 132 janitor 133 service man Field 23: communal services and maintenance 134 stoker 4 135 watchman 1 136 charwoman 1 137 caretaker 1 138 prisoner 139 R Fields 24-26: 140 policeman 141 artist, decorator 142 musician, actor Field 28: other fields 143 employee 144 worker 145 military Field 27: 146 pensioner Field 29: no information 147 dead, unknown 48. Do you hold more than one job at the company or institution where you are employed? (W) 1 yes 2 no 49. Do you have subordinates at work? (W) 1 yes 2 no 50. How many people are employed in your primary work unit? (W) 1 I am alone 2 up to 5 3 6 - 10 4 11 - 15 5 16 - 20 6 more than 20 How many of your workmates are...? (W) 51. ...women 1 none 2 less than half 3 half 4 most 52. ...of the same age as you 1 none 2 less than half 3 half 4 most 53. ...Estonians 1 none 2 less than half 3 half 4 most 54. ...persons who have at least a secondary education 1 none 2 less than half 3 half 4 most 55. Your work tasks are... (W) 1 routine tasks which require standard operations 2 routine tasks which require different operations 3 specific tasks which require nonstandard operations 56. What is the product of your work? (W) 1 A concrete thing or material that can be used directly 2 A detail of some more complex equipment 3 Some kind of service 4 Farm product 5 Document 6 Lecture, school class, article, work of art, etc. 7 Other 57. To what extent have your expectations about work been fulfilled? (W) 1 I am disappointed 2 I am fairly unsatisfied 3 I am fairly satisfied 4 My expectations have been completely fulfilled 58. Counting the jobs you have held, which, in order, is your current job? (W) 1 First 2 Second 3 Third 4 Fourth 59. Counting the specialties you have had, which, in order, is your current speciality? (W) 1 First 2 Second 3 Third 4 Fourth 61. Are you working now? (W) 1 Yes 2 I do not work because of serious illness 3 I am on maternity leave 4 I do not work for some other reason 62. Do you intend to change your job and start working in another company or institution? (W) 1 yes, in the near future 2 in the more distant future 3 I don't know 4 no, I don't 63. Did you receive a new living-space after completing secondary school? (W) 1 No, I did not need that 2 Yes, I did 3 I am on the waiting list 4 No, I didn't, and I am not on the waiting list 64. Did your parents or relatives help you find your first job? (W) 1 yes, they helped considerably 2 yes, to some degree 3 no, they didn't help at all 65. If you compare your job with that of your former school- mates, is it...? (W) 1 ...worse 2 ...about the same 3 ...better Do you participate in the activity of the following organizations, institutions, clubs, etc.? 68. Komsomol 1 I am not a member 2 I am a member, but do not participate in its activities 3 I participate in its work 4 I am an activist 69. Trade unions 1 I am not a member 2 I am a member, but do not participate in its activities 3 I participate in its work 4 I am an activist 72. People's brigade (W) 1 I am not a member 2 I am a member, but do not participate in its activities 3 I participate in its work 4 I am an activist 73. Amateur art collectives 1 I am not a member 2 I am a member, but do not participate in its activities 3 I participate in its work 4 I am an activist 74. Sport clubs, athletic organizations 1 I am not a member 2 I am a member, but do not participate in its activities 3 I participate in its work 4 I am an activist 75. Interest and hobby clubs and societies 1 I am not a member 2 I am a member, but do not participate in its activities 3 I participate in its work 4 I am an activist 76. Do you have any social work or community tasks? 1 no 2 I only have some temporary tasks 3 I have one regular task 4 I fulfil two or more regular tasks 77. If you had to defend your rights, to whom would you turn first? 1 the administration of the institution, firm, etc., where I am employed (W) 2 local communist party organization at my workplace 3 trade union committee at my workplace 4 Komsomol 5 city or village Soviet 6 city's or county's communist party committee 7 public prosecutor's office 8 local newspaper, radio, TV 9 all-Estonian or all-Union instit- utions 78. Do you engage in sports and athletic activities? 1 no 2 sometimes 3 regularly How important, in your opinion, are the following activities in life? 79. Studies 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 fairly important 4 very important 80. Social work 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 fairly important 4 very important 81. Sports and physical exercise 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 fairly important 4 very important 82. Socializing with friends 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 fairly important 4 very important 83. Creating a family, family life 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 fairly important 4 very important 84. Going to the theater, concerts, exhibitions 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 fairly important 4 very important 85. Listening to the radio, watching TV 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 fairly important 4 very important 86. Spending time with a beloved person 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 fairly important 4 very important 87. Occupational work 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 fairly important 4 very important 88. Going to parties, discos, cafes 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 fairly important 4 very important 89. Reading fiction 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 fairly important 4 very important 90. Favorite activity, hobby 1 unimportant 2 fairly unimportant 3 fairly important 4 very important 91. Which one of these activities do you consider the most important in life? 1 Studies 2 Social work 3 Sports and physical exercise 4 Socializing with friends 5 Creating a family, family life 6 Going to the theater, concerts, exhibitions 7 Listening to the radio, watching TV 8 Spending time with a beloved person 9 Occupational work 10 Going to parties, discos, cafes 11 Reading fiction 12 Favorite activity, hobby 92. Where do you live? 1 I share a room in a hostel or dormitory 2 I have my own room in a hostel or dormitory 3 I live in a rented room or apartment 4 I live in a municipal apartment with a shared kitchen 5 I live in a separate municipal apartment 6 I live in my own or my parents' cooper- ative apartment 7 I live in my own or my parents' private house 93. Do you live... 1 ...separately from your parents in another city or town 2 ...separately from your parents, but in the same city or town 3 ...together with my parents in their living space 4 ...together with my parents in my own living space 94. What are your daily relations with your parents? 1 we live in a common household 2 we live separately, but my parents help me 3 I do not receive any aid from my parents 95. Do you have a room of your own? (W) 1 No 2 Yes, I do, but not all family members do 3 Yes, all family members have their own rooms 96. How many rooms do you have at your (or your family's) disposal? (W) 1 One 2 Two 3 Three 4 Four or more More about your relationship with your parents 97. My parents help me financially (W) 1 No 2 Yes 98. My parents help me with food (W) 1 No 2 Yes 99. My parents give me various commodities (W) 1 No 2 Yes 100. My parents help me with housekeeping, caring for children, etc. (W) 1 No 2 Yes 101. I help my parents financially (W) 1 No 2 Yes 102. I help my parents with housekeeping, and I look after them (W) 1 No 2 Yes 103. I help my parents with food (W) 1 No 2 Yes 104. Try to assess the amount of aid you have received from your parents in money and various goods over the past year. 105. What was your income from all sources (except your parents) during the last month? How much of this comes from your main salary? 106. Do you have any additional income that is linked to your main job (W) or field of study (S) 1 no 2 yes 107. If you do, how big it is? 108. Do you have any additional income that is not linked to your main job (W) or field of study (S) 1 no 2 yes 109. If you do, how big it is? 110. Do you have debts (cash, credit debts, real estate mortgage, etc.)? 1 no 2 no more than 250 roubles 3 251 - 500 roubles 4 501 - 750 " 5 751 - 1,000 " 6 more than 1,000 " 111. Do you have any savings? 1 no 2 no more than 250 roubles 3 251 - 500 roubles 4 501 - 750 " 5 751 - 1,000 " 6 more than 1,000 " Which of the following ways of improving your material situation do you use or will you use in the future? 112. Holding a second job in some enterprise or institution 1 I am unlikely to do this 2 I will probably do this in the future 3 I will do this in the near future 4 I do this already 113. Doing odd jobs for private persons 1 I am unlikely to do this 2 I will probably do this in the future 3 I will do this in the near future 4 I do this already 114. Growing farm products and raising domestic animals for my own family 1 I am unlikely to do this 2 I will probably do this in the future 3 I will do this in the near future 4 I do this already 115. Growing farm products for sale 1 I am unlikely to do this 2 I will probably do this in the future 3 I will do this in the near future 4 I do this already 116. Making various goods for your own family 1 I am unlikely to do this 2 I will probably do this in the future 3 I will do this in the near future 4 I do this already 117. Making various goods for sale 1 I am unlikely to do this 2 I will probably do this in the future 3 I will do this in the near future 4 I do this already Do you have or intend to acquire in the future... 118. ...your own house 1 I do not want one 2 I intend to acquire one in the more distant future 3 I will acquire one in the near future 4 I have one 119. ...a car 1 I do not want one 2 I intend to acquire one in the more distant future 3 I will acquire one in the near future 4 I have one 120. ...a motor-cycle 1 I do not want one 2 I intend to acquire one in the more distant future 3 I will acquire one in the near future 4 I have one 121. ...your own room 1 I do not want one 2 I intend to acquire one in the more distant future 3 I will acquire one in the near future 4 I have one 122. ...a private library of more than 200 books 1 I do not want one 2 I intend to acquire one in the more distant future 3 I will acquire one in the near future 4 I have one 123. ...a color TV-set 1 I do not want one 2 I intend to acquire one in the more distant future 3 I will acquire one in the near future 4 I have one 124. ...a stereo 1 I do not want one 2 I intend to acquire one in the more distant future 3 I will acquire one in the near future 4 I have one 125. ...a musical instrument 1 I do not want one 2 I intend to acquire one in the more distant future 3 I will acquire one in the near future 4 I have one 126. ...a VCR 1 I do not want one 2 I intend to acquire one in the more distant future 3 I will acquire one in the near future 4 I have one 127. ...works of art 1 I do not want any 2 I intend to acquire some in the more distant future 3 I will acquire some in the near future 4 I have some 128. ...sports equipment 1 I do not want it 2 I intend to acquire it in the more distant future 3 I will acquire it in the near future 4 I have it 129. ...new furniture 1 I do not want it 2 I intend to acquire it in the more distant future 3 I will acquire it in the near future 4 I have it 130. ...tools, instruments 1 I do not want any 2 I intend to acquire some in the more distant future 3 I will acquire some in the near future 4 I have some 131. ...a typewriter 1 I do not want one 2 I intend to acquire one in the more distant future 3 I will acquire one in the near future 4 I have one 132. ...garden, a plot of land 1 I do not want one 2 I intend to acquire one in the more distant future 3 I will acquire one in the near future 4 I have one 133. ...domestic animals, poultry 1 I do not want any 2 I intend to acquire some in the more distant future 3 I will acquire some in the near future 4 I have some 134. Your marital status 1 Married 2 I cohabit 3 Unmarried 4 Separated, divorced 5 Widow(er) 135. How many children do you have? 136. If you are still unmarried, what are your future plans? 1 I do not intend to marry 2 I will marry in the more distant future 3 I would have married already if I had found a suitable mate 4 I have a girlfriend/boyfriend who I am likely to marry 5 My fiance/e and I have handed in the marriage application 137. Your spouse's education 1 8 grades 2 9 grades or incomplete specialized secondary education 3 general secondary education 4 specialized secondary education 5 1-2 years of higher education 6 incomplete higher education 7 higher education 138. How would you describe your family life? 1 we are in the process of divorcing or have already divorced 2 so bad that we are considering separating 3 not too good, relationships are rather tense 4 fairly good 5 very good 139. If you are married, how big is your monthly family per capita income? 140. How much of your income do you spend on food and other every- day needs? 141. How do you rate your material situation in comparison with that of your peers? 1 my situation is worse 2 my situation is about the same 3 my situation is above average 4 my situation is significantly better 142. How much fashionable, foreign-made clothing do you have? 1 I do not have such clothing 2 I have only a few such things 3 I have a lot of such clothing 4 such clothing constitutes the majority of my wardrobe How much do you like (or would you like) to engage in the following activities? 143. Occupational work 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 144. Social and community work 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 145. Studying 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 146. Listening to the radio, watching TV 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 147. Sports, physical exercise 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 148. Associating with friends 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 149. Going to the theater, concerts, exhibition 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 150. Going to the movies 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 151. Professional self-improvement 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 152. Caring for your home 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 153. Caring for your children 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 154. Going to parties, discos, cafes 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 155. Reading fiction 1 not at all 2 not much 3 fairly much 4 very much 156. Which of these activities do you like most of all? 1 Occupational work 2 Social and community work 3 Studying 4 Listening to the radio, watching TV 5 Sport, physical exercise 6 Associating with friends 7 Going to the theater, concerts, exhibitions 8 Going to the movies 9 Professional self- improvement 10 Caring for your home 11 Caring for your children 12 Going to parties, discos, cafes 13 Reading fiction 157. How much do you read? 1 next to nothing 2 one or two books a year 3 one or two books every six months 4 one book every couple of months 5 two or more books a month 158. How many books do you have in your home library? 1 less than 50 2 50 - 200 3 200 - 500 4 500 - 1,000 5 more than 1,000 With whom do you usually spend your leisure time? 159. With spouse, girlfriend/boyfriend 1 never 2 sometimes 3 mainly 160. With relatives 1 never 2 sometimes 3 mainly 161. With former schoolmates 1 never 2 sometimes 3 mainly 162. With workmates or fellow students 1 never 2 sometimes 3 mainly 163. With fellow enthusiasts (in sports club, etc.) 1 never 2 sometimes 3 mainly 164. With neighbors 1 never 2 sometimes 3 mainly 165. Alone 1 never 2 sometimes 3 mainly 166. What sex are your friends? 1 all are female 2 mostly female 3 about equal numbers of males and females 4 mostly male 5 all are male How many hours a day do you spend...? 167. ...watching TV 1 none 2 less than 0.5 hours 3 0.5 - 1 hour 4 1 - 2 hours 5 2 - 3 hours 6 more than 3 hours 168. ...listening to the radio 1 none 2 less than 0.5 hours 3 0.5 - 1 hour 4 1 - 2 hours 5 2 - 3 hours 6 more than 3 hours 169. ...reading newspapers and periodicals 1 none 2 less than 0.5 hours 3 0.5 - 1 hour 4 1 - 2 hours 5 2 - 3 hours 6 more than 3 hours 170. ...reading fiction 1 none 2 less than 0.5 hours 3 0.5 - 1 hour 4 1 - 2 hours 5 2 - 3 hours 6 more than 3 hours 171. ...listening to records, cassettes 1 none 2 less than 0.5 hours 3 0.5 - 1 hour 4 1 - 2 hours 5 2 - 3 hours 6 more than 3 hours What do you do during your spare time? 172. Take care of your home, work in the garden, etc. 1 never 2 rarely 3 often 4 mostly 173. Do needlework and handicrafts 1 never 2 rarely 3 often 4 mostly 174. Construct or repair something 1 never 2 rarely 3 often 4 mostly 175. Visit and receive friends 1 never 2 rarely 3 often 4 mostly 176. Spending time in the outdoors 1 never 2 rarely 3 often 4 mostly 177. Practice amateur arts, music 1 never 2 rarely 3 often 4 mostly 178. Go to the theater, concerts, exhibitions 1 never 2 rarely 3 often 4 mostly 179. Go to the movies 1 never 2 rarely 3 often 4 mostly 180. Go to parties, discos 1 never 2 rarely 3 often 4 mostly What kind of friends do you like to have? Those who ... 181. ...understand and would help you 1 no 2 rather not 3 rather 4 yes, mostly 182. ...share your views and opinions 1 no 2 rather not 3 rather 4 yes, mostly 183. ...are merry companions and good mixers 1 no 2 rather not 3 rather 4 yes, mostly 184. ...have high position in society 1 no 2 rather not 3 rather 4 yes, mostly 185. ...have access to goods that are in short supply 1 no 2 rather not 3 rather 4 yes, mostly 186. ...are rich and wear fashionable clothes 1 no 2 rather not 3 rather 4 yes, mostly 187. ...have a broad knowledge 1 no 2 rather not 3 rather 4 yes, mostly To what degree are you, in your everyday life, guided by views and convictions that are typical of ... 188. ...your peers 1 not at all 2 partially 3 substantially 4 completely 189. ...your friends 1 not at all 2 partially 3 substantially 4 completely 190. ...your work collective 1 not at all 2 partially 3 substantially 4 completely 191. ...our society 1 not at all 2 partially 3 substantially 4 completely 192. ...your family 1 not at all 2 partially 3 substantially 4 completely 193. ...yourself 1 not at all 2 partially 3 substantially 4 completely 194. Whose views and convictions guide you most of all? 1 Peers' 2 Friends' 3 Work collective's 4 Society's 5 Family's 6 Your own There is no unanimous agreement about norms of behavior. While some people consider a norm too strict, others hold the opposite view. Do you agree that ... 195. ...current norms are too strict, and they should be relaxed 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree somewhat 3 agree somewhat 4 strongly agree 196. ...current norms are too liberal, and they should be more strict 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree somewhat 3 agree somewhat 4 strongly agree Do you like to... 197. ...be at your parental home 1 no, not at all 2 I'm not sure 3 more or less 4 yes, very much 198. ...live at your current residence 1 no, not at all 2 I'm not sure 3 more or less 4 yes, very much 199. ...be at your workplace 1 no, not at all 2 I'm not sure 3 more or less 4 yes, very much 200. Try to assess how your life has passed so far? 1 poorly 2 rather badly 3 hard to say, both good and bad things have taken place 4 rather well 5 very well Now try to assess your chances, in comparison with your peers, for... 201. ...professional development 1 substantially below average 2 somewhat below average 3 average 4 somewhat above average 5 substantially above average 202. ...enjoying interesting leisure activities 1 substantially below average 2 somewhat below average 3 average 4 somewhat above average 5 substantially above average 203. ...independence 1 substantially below average 2 somewhat below average 3 average 4 somewhat above average 5 substantially above average 204. ...professional advancement 1 substantially below average 2 somewhat below average 3 average 4 somewhat above average 5 substantially above average 205. ...material welfare 1 substantially below average 2 somewhat below average 3 average 4 somewhat above average 5 substantially above average 206. ...a settled personal life 1 substantially below average 2 somewhat below average 3 average 4 somewhat above average 5 substantially above average 207. ...developing your abilities and skills 1 substantially below average 2 somewhat below average 3 average 4 somewhat above average 5 substantially above average Now, a few questions about your future plans. 208. Do you consider it necessary to plan your future? 1 completely unnecessary 2 rather unnecessary 3 rather necessary 4 absolutely necessary How old were you when the following events took place in your life? If they have not yet occurred, at what age do you think they are likely to take place? 209. At what age did you begin to live separately from your parents? 210. I will begin living separately from my parents at the age of... 211. I entered the labor market at the age of... 212. I will enter the labor market at the age of... 213. I got my own living space at the age of... 214. I will get my own living space at the age of... 215. I completed my formal schooling at the age of... 216. I will finish my formal schooling at the age of... 217. I married at the age of... 218. I will marry at the age of... 219. My first child was born when I was... 220. My first child will be born when I am... 221. I chose a permanent place of residence at the age of... 222. I will choose a permanent place of residence at the age of... 223. Where would you like to live in two or three years? 1 in the countryside, a village 2 in a rural community, town 3 in a small city 4 in a medium-size Estonian city 5 in one of the larger Estonian cities 6 in Tallinn 7 in Moscow or Leningrad 224. Do you intend to move to another city or region? (W) 1 no, I don't intend to leave my current place of residence 2 I don't know 3 yes, in the more distant future 4 yes, in the near future Do you intend to continue your schooling at a specialized secondary school or institution of higher education? 225. As a full-time student (W) 1 no 2 yes, in the more distant future 3 yes, in the near future 4 I am already enrolled 226. As a part-time student (W) 1 no 2 yes, in the more distant future 3 yes, in the near future 4 I am already enrolled 227. As a correspondence student (W) 1 no 2 yes, in the more distant future 3 yes, in the near future 4 I am already enrolled Are you, or would you like to be,.... 228. ...a farm worker (W) 1 no, I am not and don't want to be 2 yes, in the future 3 I already am 229. ...a worker (except in agriculture) (W) 1 no, I am not and don't want to be 2 yes, in the future 3 I already am 230. ...an employee-non-professional (W) 1 no, I am not and don't want to be 2 yes, in the future 3 I already am 231. ...a professional with a specialized secondary education (W) 1 no, I am not and don't want to be 2 yes, in the future 3 I already am 232. ...a professional with a higher education (W) 1 no, I am not and don't want to be 2 yes, in the future 3 I already am 233. What is the state of your health? 1 I have had only common colds and minor infections 2 I have had more serious ailments from which I have completely recovered 3 I suffer from chronic illnesses 4 I have had serious diseases and injuries from which I have not recovered 234. Do you smoke? 1 yes, I smoke at least a pack a day 2 yes, I smoke half a pack a day 3 I smoke only occasionally 4 I do not smoke 235. If you smoke, at what age did you start? 236. Do you drink alcohol? 1 yes, regularly 2 yes, fairly often (in company) 3 only rarely 4 practically never 237. If you drink alcohol, at what age did you start? 238. At what age did you first have sexual intercourse? 239. How tall are you? 240. How much do you weigh? 241. How old are you? 242. How old is your spouse? 243. How old is your mother? 244. How old is your father? 246. Your nationality 2 Russian 6 Estonian 21 Other 247. Your spouse's nationality 2 Russian 6 Estonian 21 Other 248. Your mother's nationality 2 Russian 6 Estonian 21 Other 249. Your father's nationality 2 Russian 6 Estonian 21 Other 250. Language spoken in your home 2 Russian 6 Estonian 17 Other 251. In your city (town, village, etc.) are you a... 1 Migrant from another Soviet Republic 2 Migrant from another city (town, village, etc.) 3 Native inhabitant 252. Is your spouse a ... 1 Migrant from another Soviet Republic 2 Migrant from another city (town, village, etc.) 3 Native inhabitant 253. Your sex 1 Male 2 Female 254. At what type of school did you attend the first eight grades? 1 At an 8-year fundamental school 2 At a secondary school What occupational groups did your parents belong to when you attended general secondary, specialized secondary, or vocational school? 255. Father 1 Professional with higher education 2 Professional with specialized secondary education 3 Practitioner without specialized training 4 Employee-nonprofessional, office worker 5 Skilled worker 6 Unskilled worker 7 State farm worker 8 Collective farm worker 9 Other 256. Mother 1 Professional with higher education 2 Professional with specialized secondary education 3 Practitioner without specialized training 4 Employee-nonprofessional, office worker 5 Skilled worker 6 Unskilled worker 7 State farm worker 8 Collective farm worker 9 Other 257. At what type of school did you receive your secondary education? 1 Rural vocational school 2 Urban vocational school 3 Secondary school specialized in agriculture 4 Secondary school specialized in industry 5 Other types of specialized secondary school, not related to production 6 Regular track of general secondary school 7 Special accelerated grade (focus on mathematics, a language, music, etc.) of general secondary school, since grade 9 8 Special accelerated grade (focus on mathematics, a language, music, etc.) of general secondary school, since grade 1 or 2 258. What is your present level of educational attainment? 1 I have secondary education, but I have not continued my education since 1983 2 After I completed secondary school, I attended and graduated from vocational secondary school 3 After I completed secondary school, I have obtained a specialized secondary education 4 I have incomplete higher education (at least 3 years) 259. Location of the school where you entered first grade 1 Tallinn 2 other big city 3 city with 5,000-23,000 inhabitants 4 city or town with less than 5,000 inhabitants 5 rural settlement, village 260. The location (city or county) of the school where you began your formal education (where you entered first grade) 0 Narva 1 Tallinn 2 K.-Järve city or Eastern Viru county 3 Western Viru county 4 Harju county 5 Rapla county 6 Paide county 7 Läänemaa county 8 Hiiumaa 9 Saaremaa 10 Pärnu city and county 11 Viljandi county 12 Tartu city and county 13 Jôgeva county 14 Valga county 15 Pôlva county 16 Vôru county 17 Outside Estonia 261. Location of the school where you completed eighth grade 1 Tallinn 2 other big city 3 city with 5,000-23,000 inhabitants 4 city or town with less than 5,000 inhabitants 5 rural settlement, village 262. County in which you completed eighth grade 0 Narva 1 Tallinn 2 K.-Järve city or Eastern Viru county 3 Western Viru county 4 Harju county 5 Rapla county 6 Paide county 7 Läänemaa county 8 Hiiumaa 9 Saaremaa 10 Pärnu city and county 11 Viljandi county 12 Tartu city and county 13 Jôgeva county 14 Valga county 15 Pôlva county 16 Vôru county 17 Outside Estonia 263. Type of school where you received your secondary education 1 general secondary school 2 specialized secondary school 3 vocational secondary school 264. School where you received your secondary education 1 Elva Secondary school 2 Alatskivi Secondary school 3 Kallaste Vocational Secondary School No 5 electrification of agriculture) 4 Paide Vocational Secondary School No 25 (mehanization of land improvement) 5 Väimela State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (electrification of agriculture) 6 Väimela State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (veterinary science) 7 Olustvere State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (apiculture) 8 Olustvere State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (agronomy) 9 V ru Industrial Specialized Secondary School (manufacture of furniture) 10 Kuremaa State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (live stock breeding) 11 Jäneda State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (agronomy) 12 Tihemetsa State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (mechanization of agriculture) 13-14 P ltsamaa Rural Vocational School (tractor driving) 15-16 Tihemetsa State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (tractor driving) 17 Räpina State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (horticulture) 18 Kehtna State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (mechanization of land improvement) 19 Türi State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (live stock breeding) 20 Jäneda State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (agronomy) 21 Kaarepere State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (silviculture) 22 Vana-V idu State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School 23 Antsla State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (agronomy) 24 Järva-Jaani Rural Vocational School No 31 (tractor driving) 25 Vana-Vigala Rural Vocational School No 29 (tractor driving) 26 Vana-Vigala Rural Vocational School No 29 (tractor driving) 27 Urban Vocational School No 6 (fitters-electricians) 28 Urban Vocational School No 6 29 Urban Vocational School No 6 (fitters) 30 Tartu Art School 31 Tallinn Medical School 32 Tallinn Navigation School 33-34 isu Industrial Specialized Secondary School (technology of food industry) 35 Kohtla-Järve Chemical Specialized Secondary School (technology of anorganic substances) 36 Kohtla-Järve Chemical Specialized Secondary School (installment and repair of industrial equipment) 37 Türi State Farm - Specialized Agricultural School (electrification of agriculture) 38 Kallaste Vocational School No 5 (electrification) 39 Kohtla-Järve Medical School 40 Tartu Urban Vocational School No 16 (house-painting) 41 Tartu Urban Vocational School No 17 (turners) 42 Tartu Urban Vocational School No 17 (baking) 43 Tartu Urban Vocational School No 17 (shop assistants, cashiers, salespersons) 44 Vocational School No 6 (electricians) 45 Tartu Secondary School No 12 (grade 11B) 46 Häädemeeste Secondary School 47 Kuressaare Secondary School No 1 (grade 11C) 48 P ltsamaa Secondary School (grade 11B) 49 Tallinn Medical School (hospital nursing) 50 Vana-Vigala Rural Vocational School (vegetable farming) 51-52 Helme Rural Vocational School (tractor driving) 53 Tartu Music School 54 Kuressaare Vocational School No 26 (tractor driving) 55-56 Tallinn Specialized Secondary School of Railroad Transport 57 Narva Vocational School No 8 (weaving) 58 Vocational School No 1 (type setting) 59 Vocational School No 1 (ship equipment manufacture) 60 Kadrina Secondary School 61 Otepää Secondary School (history) 62 Vocational School No 24 (confectioners) 63 Vocational School No 24 (shop assistants) 64 Narva Polytechnical School (industrial and civil construction) 65 Tartu Secondary School No 6 (grade 10B) 66 Pärnu Secondary School No 3 (grade 10A) 67-68 Rakvere Pedagogical School (pre-school education) 69 Tallinn Polytechnical School (communications) 70 Tallinn Polytechnical School (radio communications) 71 Tallinn Polytechnical School (computer science and technology) 72 Kohtla-Järve Vocational School No 20 73 Pärnu Secondary School No 2 (grade 11C) 74 Vocational School No 22 (welding) 75 Sindi Vocational School No 7 (weaving) 76-77 Tallinn Specialized Secondary School for Construction and Mechanics (autoservice) 78 Vocational School No 11 (crane driving) 79 Tallinn Specialized Secondary School of Railroad Transport (engine construction and repair) 80 Narva Vocational School No 8 (weaving) 81 Tallinn Vocational School No 10 (carpentry) 82 Pärnu Vocational School No 13 (fitters) 83 Vocational School No 20 (bulldozer drivers) 84 Tallinn Secondary School No 44 (grade 11C) 85 Tallinn Secondary School No 30 (grade 10A) 86 Kohila Secondary School 87 Narva Vocational School No 14 (welders) 88 Tallinn Secondary School No 11 89 Vocational School No 32 (tailors) 90 Mustvee Secondary School No 2 (grade 10A) 91 Tartu Secondary School No 2 (grade 11A, English language focus) 92 Tartu Secondary School No 2 (grade 11B, English language focus) 93 Valga Secondary School No 1 (physics, mathematics focus) 94 Tartu Secondary School No 8 (Estonian language and literature focus) 95 Tartu Secondary School No 5 (biology focus) 96 N o Secondary School (grade 11A, mathematics focus) 97 N o Secondary School (grade 11B, physics focus) 98 Antsla Secondary School (Russian language focus) 99 Rakvere Secondary School No 3 (grade 11A, chemistry focus) 100 Tallinn Secondary School No 7 (grade 11B) 101 Kohtla-Järve Secondary School No 5 (mathematics, physics focus) 102 Tartu Secondary School No 6 (grade 11A) 103 Püssi Secondary School 104 Tallinn Secondary School No 1 (grade 11C, mathematics, physics focus) 105 Tallinn Secondary School No 46 (art focus) 106 Tallinn Secondary School No 26 (grade 10A, English language focus) 107 Räpina Secondary School 108 Tallinn Secondary School No 26 (grade 10B) 109 Vocational School No 10 110 Vocational School No 21 111 Paide Secondary School No 2 (grade 10) 112 Tartu Secondary School No 10 (grade 11B) 113 Tallinn Secondary School No 5 (grade 10) 114 Tallinn Secondary School No 43 (grade 11A) 115 Tallinn Secondary School No 5 (grade 10) 116 V ru Secondary School No 1 (grade 11C) 117 Vastseliina Secondary School (grade 11B) 118 Tartu Secondary School No 1 (grade 11B) 119 Specialized Secondary School of Light Industry (book-keeping) 120 Keila Secondary School 121 Tartu Secondary School No 5 (chemistry focus) 122 Kohtla-Järve Secondary School No 3 (grade 10) 123 Tallinn Secondary School No 37 (grade 11B) 124 Tallinn Secondary School No 37 (grade 11A) 125 Rakvere Secondary School No 3 (grade 11B) 126 Rakvere Secondary School No 3 (grade 11B) 127 Tallinn Secondary School No 44 (grade 11B, English language focus) 128 Tartu Secondary School No 3 (grade 11D, German language focus) 129 Viljandi Secondary School No 4 (grade 11A, history focus) 130 V ru Secondary School No 2 (grade 10A) 131 Pärnu Secondary School No 1 (grade 11B) 132 Viljandi Secondary School No 1 (grade 11C) 133 Tallinn Secondary School No 16 134 Viljandi Secondary School No 5 (grade 11A, Russian language focus) 135 Kohtla-Järve Secondary School No 2 (grade 10A) 136 Tapa Secondary School No 2 137 Kilingi-N mme Secondary School (grade 11A) 138 Taebla Secondary School 139 Rakvere Secondary School No 1 (grade 11A, mathematics, physics focus) 140 Pärnu Secondary School No 4 (grade 11C) 141 Vändra Secondary School (grade 11B) 142 Vocational School No 13 (cabinet-makers) 143 Tallinn Secondary School No 4 (Russian language focus) 144 Märjamaa Secondary School 145 Tallinn Secondary School No 44 (grade 11A, chemistry focus) 146 Narva Secondary School No 6 147 Tallinn Secondary School No 50 (grade 10A) 148 Tallinn Secondary School No 15 (grade 10B) 149 Tallinn Secondary School No 50 (grade 10B) 150 Tallinn Secondary School No 42 (grade 11A, German language focus) 151 Kohtla-Järve Secondary School No 1 152 Kivi li Secondary School No 2 (grade 10B) 153 Tallinn Secondary School No 10 (grades 11A, 11B) 154 Tallinn Pedagogical School (pre-school education) 155 Tallinn Secondary School No 51 (grade 10A) 156 Räpina Secondary School (German language focus) 157 Vastseliina Secondary School (Russian language focus) 265. Location of the school where you received your secondary education 1 Tallinn 2 other big city 3 city with 5,000-23,000 inhabitants 4 city or town with less than 5,000 inhabitants 5 rural settlement, village 266. City or county where you received your secondary education 0 Narva 1 Tallinn 2 K.-Järve city or Eastern Viru county 3 Western Viru county 4 Harju county 5 Rapla county 6 Paide county 7 Läänemaa county 8 Hiiumaa 9 Saaremaa 10 Pärnu city and county 11 Viljandi county 12 Tartu city and county 13 Jôgeva county 14 Valga county 15 Pôlva county 16 Vôru county 17 Outside Estonia 267. Your first permanent place of residence after completing your secondary education 1 Tallinn 2 other big city 3 city with 5,000-23,000 inhabitants 4 city or town with less than 5,000 inhabitants 5 rural settlement, village 268. City or county where you first settled after completing your secondary education 0 Narva 1 Tallinn 2 K.-Järve city or Eastern Viru county 3 Western Viru county 4 Harju county 5 Rapla county 6 Paide county 7 Läänemaa county 8 Hiiumaa 9 Saaremaa 10 Pärnu city and county 11 Viljandi county 12 Tartu city and county 13 Jôgeva county 14 Valga county 15 Pôlva county 16 Vôru county 17 Outside Estonia 269. Your current place of residence 1 Tallinn 2 other big city 3 city with 5,000-23,000 inhabitants 4 city or town with less than 5,000 inhabitants 5 rural settlement, village 270. City or county where you currently live 0 Narva 1 Tallinn 2 K.-Järve city or Eastern Viru county 3 Western Viru county 4 Harju county 5 Rapla county 6 Paide county 7 Läänemaa county 8 Hiiumaa 9 Saaremaa 10 Pärnu city and county 11 Viljandi county 12 Tartu city and county 13 Jôgeva county 14 Valga county 15 Pôlva county 16 Vôru county 17 Outside Estonia 271. Speciality you attained in general, specialized or vocational secondary school 01 machine- and instrument construction in specialized secondary schools: metal processing, installing and repairing of industrial equipment, technology of chemical and oil-shale industry, installing of automatic equipment in vocational schools: fitters, turners, welders 02 power engineering, radio electronics, communications in specialized secondary schools: power stations and networks, industrial power equipments, radio- and telecommunications in vocational schools: electricians, fitters 03 construction in specialized secondary schools: industrial and civil construction, construction machinery and equipment in vocational schools: masons, painters, etc. 04 transportation in specialized secondary schools: autoservice, maintenance of roads and railroads, navigation in vocational schools: navigation, fitters 05 production of consumer goods in specialized secondary schools: textile, leather, wood, furniture, and printing industry 06 food industry in specialized secondary schools: food industry technology in vocational schools: cooks, confectioners 07 finance, planning in specialized secondary schools: book-keeping 08 trade in vocational schools: sales persons, cashiers 09 medicine in specialized secondary schools: medical nurses, midwives 10 education, cultural affairs in specialized secondary schools: pre-school education, arts and cultural club work 11 music, applied art in specialized secondary schools: ballet, instrumental and vocal music, conducting, stone, wood, and leather sculpting 12-13 other Secondary school majors 14 art, music 15 natural sciences 16 the humanities 17 driving 18 plant farming and animal husbandry 19 mechanization of agriculture 20 industrial specialities 21 commerce, service industry, catering 22 other Vocational school majors 23 tractor driving 24 mechanization of land improvement 25 fitting 26 electrification of agriculture 27 vegetable farming Specialities in agricultural secondary schools 28 agricultural book-keeping 29 agronomy 30 horticulture, apiculture 31 animal husbandry 32 veterinary science 33 mechanization of agriculture 34 electrification of agriculture 35 mechanization of land improvement 36 mechanization of farms 37 silviculture 272. Name of your educational institution 1 Tartu University 2 Tallinn Technical University 3 Estonian Agricultural Academy 4 Institute of the Arts 5 Tallinn Conservatory 6 Tallinn Pedagogical College 7 university or college outside Estonia 8 secondary school specialized in industry 9 secondary school specialized in agriculture 10 non-technical specialized secondary school 11 other specialized secondary schools 12 vocational secondary school 13 party school 14 Tallinn military school 273. Your salary 274. Is your spouse a student? 1 no 2 yes 275. Where does your spouse study? 1 Tartu University 2 Tallinn Technical University 3 Estonian Agricultural Academy 4 Institute of the Arts 5 Tallinn Conservatory 6 Tallinn Pedagogical College 7 university or college outside Estonia 8 secondary school specialized in industry 9 secondary school specialized in agriculture 10 non-technical specialized secondary school 11 other specialized secondary schools 12 vocational secondary school 13 party school 14 Tallinn military school 276. Your spouse's field of study Geology 1 geology Mining specialities 2 mining technology Power engineering 3 electrical systems 4 industrial thermal engineering Machine- and equipment construction 5 technology of machine construction, machine-tools and instruments 6 precision instruments and equipment Electrical machinery and equipment, automation 7 electrical machines 8 automation and telemechanics 9 computers 10 industrial electronics 11 automation of industrial equipment 12 automatized control systems 13 applied mathematics Radio electronics and communications 14 radiotechnics Chemical technology 15 basic processes in chemical industry and chemical cybernetics Wood-processing and paper industry technology 16 wood-processing technology Technology of foodstuffs industry 17 canning technology 18 meat industry technology 19 catering organization and technology Technology of consumer goods 20 natural and chemical fiber spinning 21 apparel technology 22 leather products technology 23 fabric weaving Construction 24 architecture 25 industrial and civil construction 26 production of building constructions and details 27 heating; ventilation 28 water supply, sewer system 29 roads and highways Agriculture and forestry 30 agronomy 31 live-stock breeding 32 veterinary science 33 land arrangement 34 mechanization of agriculture 35 electrification of agriculture 36 land improvement 37 forestry Transportation 38 automobiles and truck depots Economy 39 industrial planning 40 economics and organization of mechanical engineering 41 economics and organization of agriculture 42 economics and organization of construction industry 43 trade economics 44 consumer goods economics 45 food-stuffs economics 46 finances and credit 47 book-keeping 48 mechanized processing of economic data and information 49 agricultural book-keeping 50 economics and organization of service industries 51 organization and standardization of work Law 52 law Public health and physical fitness 53 theraphy 54 pediatrics 55 stomatology 56 pharmacy 57 physical fitness and sports University specialities 58 Russian language and literature 59 Russian language in national school (instruction in language of republic) 60 Estonian language and literature 61 English language and literature 62 German language and literature 63 French language and literature 64 history 65 psychology 66 mathematics 67 physics 68 chemistry 69 biology 70 journalism 71 geography 72 economic cybernetics Specialities at pedagogical and cultural colleges 73 Russian language and literature in national school (instruction in language of republic) 74 Estonian language and literature 75 English 76 German 77 mathematics 78 drawing and fine arts 79 pre-school education and psychology 80 special education 81 cultural affairs 82 library science 83 manual training, technical subjects 84 methods of education and elementary training Art 85 music 86 choir-conducting 87 stage and costume design 88 fine arts Other college specialities 89-100 Specialized secondary school fields Mining 101 mineral mining 102 mineral strip-mining Power supply engineering 103 industrial electrical equipment 104 electrical engineering of mines 105 boilers and turbines Machine and equipment construction 106 metal cutting 107 assembly and repair of industrial equipment 108 apparel industry equipment 109 wood-processing industry machines and equipment Electrical machinery and equipment 110 computers 111 assembly and fitting of control and automation systems Radio electronics and communications 112 radio communications 113 naval radio communications 114 rural electrical and radio communications 115 automation-electrical communications Chemical technology 116 technology of coak-chemical industry 117 technology of anorganic substances and fertilizers Technology of wood-processing and paper industry 118 furniture manufacture Technology of food industry 119 bakery goods technology 120 fermentation technology 121 canning technology 122 meat processing technology 123 dairy products technology 124 fish processing technology 125 meal preparation technology Technology of consumer goods 126 wool spinning 127 apparel manufacturing 128 spinning industry 129 fabrics weaving 130 leather processing technology Construction industry 131 industrial and civil construction 132 construction and maintenance of motorways 133 rural and civil construction Geodesy and cartography 134 engineering geodesy Agriculture 135 agronomy 136 horticulture 137 veterinary science 138 live-stock breeding 139 mechanization of agriculture 140 electrification of agriculture 141 forestry 142 mechanization of land improvement 143 apiculture 144 mechanization and electrification of farms 145 heating of farms Transportation 146 mainterance of railroads 147 navigation 148 maintenance of automobiles 149 maintenace of ship's power equipment 150 refrigeration equipments 151 maintenance of ship's automation equipment Economy 152 light industry enterprise planning 153 communication firm planning 154 consumer goods economics, organization of commerce 155 food-stuffs economics, organization of commerce 156 book publishing and printing economics 157 commodities and marketing economics 158 state budget 159 book-keeping 160 commercial accounting 161 banking 162 mechanization of accounting 163 programming 164 budgetary book-keeping 165 hotel economics 166 agricultural book-keeping 167 organization of business management Jurisprudence 168 law 169 jurisprudence in social insurance firms Public health and physical fitness 170 doctor's assistant 171 midwife 172 laboratory assistant 173 sanitary doctor's assistant 174 pharmacist 175 dental mechanic 176 medical nurse Education 177 elementary school teaching 178 pre-school education 179 cultural education, club work 180 librarian 181 music teaching 182 education in day-care centers The arts 183 music 184 conducting 185 ballet 186 wood and stone sculpting 187 footwear and leather design 188 clothes design 189 sculpting and design 190 other fields of specialized secondary schools 191 vocational school specialities 277. Spouse's place of employment 0 home-maker 1 heavy industry 2 light industry 3 food industry 4 construction 5 transportation 6 state farms 7 agricultural collective farms 8 collective fisheries 9 forestry, nature conservation 10 rural and farm construction 11 other agriculture-specific fields 12 commerce and catering 13 marketing, processing 14 communal grounds, utilities maintenance 15 service industries 16 public health 17 pre-school education 18 education 19 cultural affairs 20 science, research 21 finance, state insurance 22 sport and physical education 23 state institutions, social organizations 24 social maintenance 25 communications 26 police, emergency services, court 27 power engineering 28 the army 29 tourism 30 cooperatives, self-employed 31 weather forecasting 32 prison 278. Your spouse's job Code Rank 1 top-level administrator 13 2 chief engineer 13 3 chief mechanical engineer 13 4 chief power engineer 13 5 other chief specialist 13 6-7 head of a department or division 13 8 engineer 7-11 9 mechanical engineer 9-11 10 depot or shop manager 9-10-11 11 technician 9 12 foreman 9 13-14 work-team or subunit leader 9 15 land improver 9 Field 1: metal industry, machine-building 16 locksmith 3-4-5 17 turner 4 18 welder 4 19 fitter 20 other metal-industry specific job 4 21 22 Field 2: road transport 23 driver 5 24 bus-driver 5 25 tram- or trolley-driver 5 26 tractor-driver 5 27 drivers of other vehicles 28 R conductor 29 R fire-fighter Field 3: maritime transport and fishing 30 fisher 3 31 R sailor 32 R captain Field 4-5: juridical specialities 33 R lawyer 34 R bailiff Field 6: communications 35 postmaster 8 36 postman 2 37 R operator 38 telephone-operator Field 7: power supply 39 electrician5 40 R fitter, radio-operator Field 8: various manufacturing 41 weaver, spinner 5 42 seamstress 5 43 other light-industry-specific jobs 1-3 44 R food-industry jobs 45 R printing industry jobs Field 9: mining 46 miners and other mining-specific 3 47 R Field 10: other manufacturing and technics-specific 48 R lumber, wood, furniture, and paper- industry 49 R chemical-industry specialities Field 11: construction industry Professionals 50 civil engineer 11 51 foreman 9-11 Workers 52 carpenter, joiner 5 53 mason 5 54 house-painter, plasterer 5 55 construction worker 3(7) 56 R 57 R Field 12: plant farming and animal husbandry Professionals 58 state or collective farm manager 13 59 chief live-stock expert 13 60 chief agronomist 13 61 chief veterinarian 13 62 agronomist 9 or 11 63 live-stock expert 9 or 11 64 veterinarian 11 65 assistant veterinarian 9 66-67 work-unit leader 9 Workers 68 milkman 3 69-75 farm hand, cattle worker 1 76 garden worker 1 77 R stable worker 78 R Field 13: land-improvement 79 land improver 1 80 R Field 14: forestry 81 forest guard 2 82 lumberjack 1 83 R forester Field 15: service industries 84 hairdresser 5 85 tailor 5 86 receiver of orders 2-5-7 87 other service-specific (weaver, etc.) 2-5-7 88 photographer, radio and TV-mechanic 89 ticket sales person Field 16: trade and catering 90 shop manager 9-10 91 sales person, shop-assistant 5 92 cook, confectioner 5 93 waiter, bartender 5 94 dish-washer 1 95 chambermaid, porter, doorkeeper Field 17: education 97 teacher 8-9-11-12 98 day-care center or kindergarten director 10 99 day-care center teacher 8-9 100 nurse-maid 1 101 pioneer youth leader 102 proof-reader Field 18: science 103 researcher, professor, lecturer 11(13) 104 laboratory assistant Field 19: cultural affairs 105 creative executive manager 106 librarian, bibliographer Field 20: public health 107 physician 11 108 hospital nurse 9 109 doctor's assistant, midwife 9 110 hospital attendant, disinfector 1 111 registering clerk 112 pharmacist Field 21: planning and accounting 113 chief book-keeper or economist 13 114 book-keeper, economist 7-11 115 administrator, manager in the field of economics 9 116 personnel manager 8-10 117 accounter, operator 7 118 dispatcher 7 119 secretary 7 120 typist 7 121 cashier 7 122 inspector, instructor 7 Field 22: storage and processing 123 commodities expert 7-11 124 store manager 9 125 processing manager 8 126 controller 7 127 dispatcher 7 128 store-keeper 2 129 loader 1 130 packer, assorter 131 miller 132 janitor 133 service-man Field 23: communal services (grounds, utilties maintenance) 134 stoker 4 135 watchman 1 136 charwoman 1 137 caretaker 1 138 prison worker 139 R Fields 24-26: 140 policeman 141 artist, decorator 142 musician, actor Field 28: other fields 143 employee 144 worker 145 military Field 27: 146 pensioner Field 29: no information 147 dead, unknown 279. Respondent's rank in the structure of the national economy 1 jobs that do not require particular education or training 2 apprentice to 1 3 jobs that require certain training but not necessarily at a vocational school (categories 1-5) 4 apprentice, assistant to 3 5 jobs that require vocational school education (categories 5 and higher) 6 apprentice, assistant to 5 7 employee non-professional with general secondary education 8 assistant to 7 9 jobs that require specialized secondary education Professional and lower-level manager, foreman, technician 10 deputy to 9 11 professional with a college or university education, middle-level manager 12 deputy to 11 13 head of department, manager, chief professional 14 deputy to 13 15 head or deputy of ministerial and governmental board or office 16 worker whose rank cannot be specified 17 professional whose rank cannot be specified 18 home-maker, unemployed 19 other (the police, military, etc.) 20 unknown, dead 21 service-person 280. Your spouse's rank in the structure of the national economy 1 jobs that do not require particular education or training 2 apprentice to 1 3 jobs that require certain training but not necessarily at a vocational school (categories 1-5) 4 apprentice, assistant to 3 5 jobs that require vocational school education (categories 5 and higher) 6 apprentice, assistant to 5 7 employee non-professional with general secondary education 8 assistant to 7 9 jobs that require specialized secondary education Professional and lower-level manager, foreman, technician 10 deputy to 9 11 professional with a college or university education, middle-level manager 12 deputy to 11 13 head of department, manager, chief professional 14 deputy to 13 15 head or deputy of ministerial and governmental board or office 16 worker whose rank cannot be specified 17 professional whose rank cannot be specified 18 home-maker, unemployed 19 other (the police, military, etc.) 20 unknown, dead 21 service-person 281. Completion of the questionnaire took place... 1 in the presece of the interviewer 2 in the absence of the interviewer, but respondent had been personally contacted by the interviewer 3 in the absence of the interviewer; respondent received and returned the questionnaire by mail 282. Type of sample 1 national 2 main type at school 3 subtype at school 4 reserve 283. Language of questionnaire 1 Russian 2 Estonian 284. Community size and language 285. Region and regional language 286. Try to recall when you decided definitley to acquire a college or university education 1 before completing eighth grade 2 more than six months before completing secondary school 3 during the last six months of secondary school 4 during the six months after completing secondary school 5 more than six months after completing secondary school 6 I never made a firm decision, I simply tried to get in and was admitted 287. What is the language of instruction at your school? 2 Russian 6 Estonian 288. To which group does your major belong? 1 education (in a pedagogical institute) 2 law 3 the humanities (at a university) 4 science (mathematics, physics) 5 natural sciences (biology, geography, chemistry) 6 economics 7 engineering 8 agriculture 9 physical education 10 medicine 11 the arts (music, fine arts, etc.) 12 other (describe) 289. Imagine that you are just graduating from secondary school and choosing your post-secondary education. What field of study would you choose now? 1 education (in a pedagogical institute) 2 law 3 the humanities (at a university) 4 science (mathematics, physics) 5 natural sciences (biology, geography, chemistry) 6 economics 7 engineering 8 agriculture 9 physical education 10 medicine 11 the arts (music, fine arts, etc.) 12 other (describe) 290. Did your parents or relatives help you to secure your admission to post-secondary studies? 1 definitely not 2 probably not 3 probably somewhat 4 yes, definitely 291. When did you decide firmly to pursue an education in your current field? 1 it was not a firm decision, I decided on this field by chance 2 more than six months after completing secondary school 3 during the six months after completing secondary school 4 during the last six months of secondary school 5 more than six months before completing secondary school 6 before completing eighth grade 292. What was the average grade nf your entrance examinations? 1 3.5 or less 2 3.51 - 4.00 3 4.01 - 4.50 4 4.51 - 4.99 5 5.0 293. If you could choose a field of study again, how would you act? 1 I probably would not enter an institution of higher education 2 I would enter another university or college 3 I would choose the same university but another major 4 I would definitely choose the same field 294. What was the grade-point average of your last school-year? 1 3.5 or less 2 3.51 - 4.00 3 4.01 - 4.50 4 4.51 - 4.99 5 5.0 In your opinion, why does it mame sense to pursue an education? People study in order to ... 295. ... achieve better material security 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 296. ... attain a desired profession 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 297. ... acquire in-depth knowledge of some subject 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 298. ... attain a secure position in society 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 299. ... enjoy the life of a student 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 300. ... do clean and physically easy work 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 301. ... develop one's personality 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 302. ...win respect from friends 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 303. ...acquire social prestige 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 304. ... develop one's skills and talents 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 305. ...better understand the world and life 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 306. ... better succeed in life 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 307. ... become an expert specialist 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 308. ... live and work amidst educated people 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 309. ... be more useful to society 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 310. ... realize one's abilities in one's chosen field 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 agree 4 strongly agree 311. Do you receive a scholarship? 1 I have never received a scholarship 2 only for a few semesters 3 approximately for half of the semesters 4 yes, for most semesters 5 yes, for all semesters 312. Have you ever participated in a students' construction brigade? 1 no 2 yes, as a rank-and-file member 3 yes, as an organizer or activist 313. Have you ever participated in the activities of a students' scientific society? 1 no 2 sometimes attend meetings of the students' scientific society 3 I have delivered reports at meetings of the students' scientific society 4 I have received prizes for my research work So far in your training as a future professional, of what importance have the following factors been? 314. Associating with professors, teachers 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 315. Studies 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 316. Teaching or training practice 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 317. Social work 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 318. Research work 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 319. Students' construction brigade 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 320. Associating with fellow students 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 321. University cultural life 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 322. Sports 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 323. Self-education 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big So far in your training as a future professional, of what importance have the following institutions and persons been? 324. The committee of the Young Communist League 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 325. Students' trade union organization 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 326. University communist party organization 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 327. Dean's office 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 328. Program supervisor 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 329. Teachers, professors 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big 330. Hostel or dorm council 1 none 2 small 3 fairly big 4 very big In the future, would you like to work as a ... 331. ... teacher 1 no, not at all 2 no, rather not 3 yes, perhaps 4 yes, very much 332. ... professional in your field (physician, engineer, agronomist, lawyer, etc.) 1 no, not at all 2 no, rather not 3 yes, perhaps 4 yes, very much 333. ... administrator 1 no, not at all 2 no, rather not 3 yes, perhaps 4 yes, very much 334. ... researcher 1 no, not at all 2 no, rather not 3 yes, perhaps 4 yes, very much 335. ... university professor 1 no, not at all 2 no, rather not 3 yes, perhaps 4 yes, very much 336. In the future, do you intend to work in the field you studied at university or college? 1 no, definitely not 2 no, probably not 3 yes, probably 4 yes, definitely 337. What do you think you will you be at the age of 35? 1 a worker, collective farmer, or employee whose job does not require higher or specialized secondary education 2 a rank-and-file professional 3 a lower-level administrator 4 a medium-level administrator 5 a top-level administrator 338. In which sector of the national economy do you think your future occupation will be? 1 transportation 2 communications 3 heavy industry 4 construction 5 light industry 6 agriculture 7 commerce, catering 8 service industry 9 communal services, grounds, and utilities maintenance 10 public health 11 education 12 cultural affairs, arts, science 13 state institutions, social organizations 14 other 344. Type of population center in which your school is located 1 Up to 2,000 inhabitants 2 2,000-5,000 inhabitants 3 5,000-10,000 inhabitants 4 10,000-25,000 inhabitants 5 25,000-100,000 inhabitants 6 Tartu (110,000 inhabitants) 7 Tallinn (450,000 inhabitants) 345. Region in Estonia in which your school is located 1 Tallinn 2 Tartu 3 North 4 North-East 5 West 6 Central 7 South-East
Välis_ID
88960013
Lühikirjeldus
The second-stage questionnaire was put together in the Russian language in close cooperation between the researchers from all regions where the survey was conducted. But at the second stage, there were two versions of the questionnaire: one for the students and another for the nonstudents (mainly working youth). In addition to items common to all respondents, the two versions of the questionnaires included special items for students and working youth. The order of questions in the versions for students and nonstudents differed; however, the order of common variables has been made identical for both groups in the data file. The order of variables V1-V258 corresponds to the order of questions in the questionnaire for nonstudents. In addition, V259-V285 were gathered for both groups. V286-V338 are the special variables from the questionnaire for students; they are absent in the case of nonstudents. Students have missing values on all variables that concerned only working youth.

UURINGUGA SEOTUD ISIKUD:
Kallas Raul
Nikolayeva Margarita
Titma Mikk
Helemäe Jelena
Vöörmann Rein
Kenkmann Paul
Saarniit Jüri
Sukamägi Aimi
Talv Villu
Ennok Avo
Murakas Rein
Saari Mari
Tamm Karl
Lepik Riina
Mikk Lana
Uueküla Jaak
Kings Ilona
Must Aasa
Solotarjeva Olga

UURINGUGA SEOTUD INSTITUTSIOONID:
TÜ Sotsioloogiaosakond